A quantitative microbial risk analysis—Monte Carlo method was used to estimate norovirus and Ascaris infection risks to urban farmers in developing countries watering their crops with wastewater. For a tolerable additional disease burden of≤10−4 DALY loss per person per year (pppy), equivalent to 1 percent of the diarrhoeal disease burden in developing countries, a norovirus reduction of 1–2 log units and an Ascaris egg reduction to 10–100 eggs per litre are required. These are easily achieved by minimal wastewater treatment—for example, a sequential batch-fed three tank/pond system. Hygiene improvement through education and regular deworming are essential complementary inputs to protect the health of urban farmers.
- quantitative microbial risk analysis
- Received July 13, 2009.
- Accepted January 1, 2010.
- © IWA Publishing 2010